Common sense of safe medication
1. The connotation of "forbidden", "forbidden" and "cautious" in the drug Manual:
"Forbidden" means that side effects will occur after drug use;
"Do not use" means that side effects are likely to occur after use;
"Caution" means that it can be used, but it is necessary to pay close attention to whether there is any side effect. Once it occurs, it shall be stopped immediately.
2. Children should pay attention to medication:
① Newborns within one month are not sensitive to antipyretics, the dosage is difficult to master, and easy to cause poisoning. Therefore, those with moderate fever below 38 ℃ do not need to use antipyretics urgently, and try to use physical methods such as 20% alcohol bath to cool down.
② Dosage: there are two calculation methods. One is by age. Dosage is as follows:
The other is calculated by multiplying the actual weight of children by the dosage per kilogram of weight.
3. Precautions for the elderly:
① There are no more than 4 drugs in combination;
② The dosage for the elderly aged 60-80 should be reduced to 2 / 3 of the adult dosage, and the dosage for the elderly aged over 80 should be 1 / 2 of the adult dosage. The dosage forms such as granules and oral liquid should be selected for the convenience of swallowing.
4. Except for special statements, the medication schedule is: "twice a day" is generally arranged at: 8:00 a.m. and 8:00 p.m.; three times a day is generally arranged at: 7:00 a.m., 3:00 p.m. and 10:00 p.m.; four times a day is generally arranged at: 8:00 a.m., 1:00 p.m., 4:00 p.m. and 8:00 p.m;
5. For patients with renal insufficiency, the dosage should be adjusted to 1 / 2-2 / 3 for mild damage, 1 / 5-1 / 2 for moderate damage and 1 / 10-1 / 5 for severe damage.
6. If vomiting patients take medicine, they can drink a little ginger juice before taking medicine, or add 1 or 2 spoonfuls of ginger juice into the medicine juice.
7. It is not correct to break off the pill to take it, because it will cause the disintegration speed of the drug in the human body to change, the bioavailability will change significantly, and the therapeutic effect and side effects of the drug will also be affected.
8. Emergency treatment for taking wrong medicine:
① Vomit: use chopsticks or tongue depressor, feathers, etc. to stimulate the patient's throat and spit out the medicine;
② Gastric lavage: wash the stomach with clear water or 1:5000 potassium permanganate solution, let the patient take it and then spit it out;
③ Send to hospital for treatment.